The objective of a turbocharger is to improve the engine's volumetric efficiency by solving one of its cardinal limitations. A naturally aspirated automobile engine uses only the downward stroke of a piston to create an area of low pressure in order to draw air into the cylinder through the intake valves. The pressure in the atmosphere is no more than 1 atm (approximately 14.7 psi), so there ultimately will be a limit to the pressure difference across the intake valves and thus the amount of airflow entering the combustion chamber. Since the turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is entering the cylinder, a greater mass of air (oxygen) will be forced in as the inlet manifold pressure increases. The additional air flow makes it possible to maintain the combustion chamber pressure and fuel/air load even at high engine revolution speeds, increasing the power and torque output of the engine.
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